6. Language in everyday life: The use of language in everyday life, e.g. education, broadcasting, and other
The special protection of minorities in the EMA (ethnically mixed areas) is presented as special rights of the minorities which are listed below:
USE OF MINORITY LANGUAGES
Bilingual signs, use in State administration, bilingual documents, bilingual judiciary, bilingual transactions in municipal administration, the use of languages in church.
RIGHT TO EDUCATION
Italian and Hungarian is used as the subject of instruction in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools. To continue education in their own language at higher-level, members of a minority group can enroll at Universities in Italy and Hungary, according to bilateral agreements between Slovenia and Italy and Hungary. They may also study Italian and Hungarian language and literature at University in Ljubljana and the University of Maribor.
RIGHT TO CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
“The Institute for the Culture of the Hungarian Ethnic Minority” and 22 similar Cultural Associations for the Hungarian minority have been established. Two important Institutions have their headquarters in Croatia: the Center for Historical Research in Rovinj and Italian Drama in Rijeka.
RIGHT TO INFORMATION
TV programs, radio, magazines, newspapers are presented in the Italian and Hungarian languages.
RIGHT TO FREE CONTACTS
Minorities have the right to establish and maintain contact with members of their group within the state as well as across borders.
RIGHT TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Members of indigenous ethnic communities have the right to apply for funds for the creation of an economic foundation. Resources are distributed proportionally between the two ethnic communities and are channeled into the development of farms and auxiliary activities, cooperative organizations and small businesses. Funds are likewise available for investments in other production or service facilities and equipment in the economy.
RIGHT TO USE OF NATIONAL SYMBOLS
Members of ethnic communities can fly their flag and play their national anthem.
PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING
Members of the ethnic communities have their own deputies in the National Assembly and representatives in municipal councils and they enjoy a dual voting right.
Updated (May 2004)
There is one national public television station, TV Slovenija, which transmits two national television programs (RTV Slovenija 1, RTV Slovenija 2). There are also three nationwide private television stations (POP TV, TV3 and A-kanal) in Slovenia.
There is one national public radio station, Radio Slovenija, which transmits three national radio programs (Prvi program A1, Drugi program VAL 202, Tretji program ARS). Apart from these, there are many regional and local radio stations, which can be received in one or more regions.
Everyone can use the language of his/her choice in private, but in public, one is obliged to use the Slovene language, however, with certain exceptions. In the ethnically mixed regions of Prekmurje and Slovene Istria, the Hungarian and Italian languages enjoy an equal status with the Slovene language both at private and public level. Slovene and Italian, or Slovene and Hungarian have an equal status in administration and national and judicial bodies. Topographical signs in these regions are also bilingual, as is the schools system.
Source: Minority-language Related Broadcasting and Legislation in the OSCE, Program in Comparative Media Law and Policy (PCMLP), Center for Socio-Legal Studies, Wolfson College, Oxford University & Institute for Information Law (IViR)(http://www.ivir.nl/index-english.html), Universiteit van Amsterdam (Study commissioned by the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities), April 2003, edited by T. McGonagle (IViR), B. Davis Noll & M. Price (PCMLP), http://www.ivir.nl/publications/mcgonagle/Minority-language%20broadcasting.pdf