Constitution as adopted on November 6, 1994
The state language of Tajikistan is Tajik. Russian is a language of inter-ethnic communication. All nations and peoples residing on the territory of the republic have the right to use freely their native languages.
All persons are equal before the law and the courts. The government guarantees the rights and freedoms of every person regardless of ethnicity, race, sex, language, faith, political beliefs, education, or social or property status. Men and women have equal rights.
The President is elected for a term of five years by the citizens of Tajikistan on the basis of general, equal, and direct voting rights by secret ballot. Any citizen who is age 35 to 65, is fluent in the state language, and has been resident on the territory of Tajikistan for at least the previous ten years may be nominated as a candidate for the office of President of the Republic. A candidate for the office of President of the Republic is any person who has so registered and has collected the signatures of nomination of no less than five percent of the voters. No one may be President for more than two consecutive terms.
Judges review cases both on panels and individually. The judicial process is exercised on the basis of the principle of the adversarial nature and equality of parties. Hearings in all courts are open, except in cases anticipated by law. Judicial proceedings are carried out in either the state language or in the language of the majority of the people of a given locality. Persons who do not speak the language of the judicial proceedings are provided with the services of an interpreter.